Today I had the same thought about aid. Aid can be distributed locally or to a national government. We have a similar dynamic to resources, where aid can help or hurt at the local level, and may have beneficial spillovers to the whole country, BUT may encourage harmful tendencies, towards dependency or crowding out entrepreneurship and investment.(And there's a similar debate over whether resource discoveries and/or aid are good or bad for countries' wealth and poverty at all!)
Caselli has a new paper out that argues that when a resource is discovered, the power elite face a shakeup and make fewer public investments. Could the same be true of aid? When governments receive aid, do they face power shakeups that make them less likely to invest in people? When rich governments disburse aid, could they do it more intelligently with that impending problem in mind?